The Game of Love

A little late for Valentine’s Day, but perhaps of interest to those looking to ‘play the long game’; the object that has taken my fancy today purports to have some wisdom to impart on that tricky subject of love …

It can be found in Gallery 5 (The rise of France) as part of the Parisian Interiors display, which considers the interior decoration and objects associated with ‘elegant living’ in France.

gallery5

It now lives in the case on the left, by these rather fun and colourful Gobelin tapestries.

Made in Rouen around 1725-1735, it is a large tray made of fine tin-glazed earthenware (conventionally referred to as ‘faïence’ in English).

game

C.11-1941

As you might expect, this tray would have served as a ‘cabaret’ for a tea-set (like the example below). However, this particular tray has an additional contribution to make to social engagements – by also serving as a board-game. Interestingly, in French, board-games are often called ‘Jeux de Societé’ – clearly putting an emphasis on the social nature of the experience. Games were often intended to be both entertaining and educational.

278-1876; 278A/1-1876; 278B/1-1876; 278C/1-1876; 278D/1-1876 Tray Tray of soft-paste porcelain painted in purple enamel and gilded, Tournai porcelain factory, Tournai, ca. 1775. Tournai porcelain factory Tournai Ca. 1775 Soft-paste porcelain painted in purple enamel and gilded

Example of a cabaret service featured in the At Home display in Gallery 1. Soft-paste porcelain painted in purple enamel and gilded, Tournai porcelain factory, Tournai, ca. 1775 V&A 278-1876

Waddesdon Manor curator Rachel Jacobs has noted that: ‘In the Dictionnaire des Jeu, (1792) Jacques Lacombe attributed the rise of game playing to the court of Louis XIV, claiming that games spread from the courts to the cities and onto the provinces, soon all seemed to be playing, men, women and children alike.’ (‘Playing, Learning, Flirting: Printed Board Games from 18th Century France’)

The game on this tray is a variant of the ‘jeu de l’oie’, known in English as the Game of the Goose, similar to today’s Snakes and Ladders. It is a 90-square, race game in a spiral layout that would have been played with dice and tokens.

gam

CIS:326-1876

Figure in earthenware of Hymen, Buen Retiro porcelain factory, Buen Retiro, late 18th century. V&A 326-1876

The title ‘Nouveau Jeu De L’Himen’ may initially conjure up rather startling anatomical suggestions today, but ‘himen’ here is actually referring to Hymen the ancient Greek god of marriage ceremonies (also known as Hymenaios or Hymenaeus).

Hymen is sometimes found depicted as a woman (see left), due to a later story, in which he disguised himself as a woman in order to join a women-only religious procession that the woman he loved was attending.

The players of this game race to reach the winning square, the Palace of Hymen.

 

Detail of a fan depicting the Altar of Hymen. Gouache on vellum, France, 1750-60. V&A T.98-1956

Detail of a fan depicting the Altar of Hymen. Gouache on vellum, France, 1750-60. V&A T.98-1956

The numbered squares are inscribed with stages of the game and illustrated with various figures from Greek and Roman mythology, including: Psyche, Vertumnus, Pomona, Médon,  Venus, Adonis, Medea, Pan, Mercury, Cephalus, Procris, Cadmus, Hermione, Danae, Apollo, Ulysees, Penelope, Boreas, Galatea and Pygmalion. These classical references would have been instantly recognisable to the educated elite of the time as texts such as Ovid’s Metamorphoses and Homer’s Odyssey were considered essential reading from a young age.

Apollo and

Apollo and Danae as depicted in the game

In the centre of the tray, the rules to this game of love/marriage are provided.

rules

The game is played according to principles established by Madeleine de Scudéry in the Carte du Tendre that was included in the second volume of her 1654-61 novel Clélie. The Carte du Tendre was  a topographical and allegorical representation of the path to love (through conduct and practice) according to the précieuses of the day. However, it has been noted that this board-game differs from the Carte du Tendre’s ideals of love by prioritising practicalities such as finance.

pays

Madeleine de Scudéry’s ‘Le Pays de Tendre’ (Map of Tender), print on paper, 1800. Cornell University: Persuasive Cartography, The PJ Mode Collection

Rather than offer serious reflections on the subject of marriage, the game mainly highlights the role of chance in relationships and ‘achieving’ happiness.  As you negotiate your way to the Palace of Hymen, there are a number of helpful/positive and hazardous/punishing spaces to encounter on the board. For example, ‘discretion’, which is said to be ‘so desirable a quality’, whooshes your forward an additional 30 spaces to the ‘Chateau de Plaisance de l’Amour’ (Chateau of the Pleasure of Love).

chateau

The ‘Chateau de Plaisance de l’Amour’

Correspondingly, ‘indiscretion’ receives the worst punishment, as you get sent back to the start, lose half your counters and miss three turns. Values such as sacrifice and faithfulness are not deemed worthy of any reward … Indiscretion being deemed worse than infidelity would today likely prompt great discussion over the refreshments being served, I’m sure.

The design on the tray reproduces that of a printed board-game whose publication was announced in the Mercure de France of 27 June, 1725.

mercure game

‘A Paris, ce 27. Juin 1725 Le Sieur Roussel graveur à Paris rue St-Jacques a gravé depuis peu & vend avec Privilège une grande Feuille, intitulée NOUVEAU JEU DE L’HIMEN … ‘

It appears that the printed game was initially issued by the Crépy family, in Paris, in 1725 and then later reissued in 1750 (see Henry R. D’Allemagne, in Le Noble Jeu de l’Oie, Paris, 1950).

himen1188aj

‘Nouveau Jeu de L’Himen’, etching on paper, published and printed Crepy, Rue St. Jacques, Paris , 1735-50. Waddesdon The Rothschild Collection

Another version of the game, with slightly different decorations, issued by Crépy in 1767 has also been found in a private collection.

himen0790aj

‘Nouveau Jeu de L’Himen’, etching on paper, published and printed Crepy, Rue St. Jacques, Paris , 1767. Collection of A. Seville.

The decorator of the tray evidently used the earlier engraving. They were faithful to the design and only abbreviated the length of the rules for the game in the centre and a few of the inscriptions for the individual squares that were too long to fit in. The colouring corresponds to the date of the publication and suggests that this tray was made only a short time after the game was published.

two games

A very close match: The early paper board-game alongside the tray.

The border decoration is composed of stylised flowers and leaves similar to that found on the broderies (embroidery) decoration for which Rouen is famous, inspired by engravings after artists such as Jean Bérain and Daniel Marot. The French faïence potteries benefited greatly from the patronage of nobles and wealthy merchants. By 1720 eight faïenceries were recorded as operating in Rouen.

Faience trays with a number of distinctive types of decoration can be found, including those with coats of arms, maps, rocailles  and history painting.  I was interested to find some that also served as  chequerboards for draughts or chess, although I feel that these don’t have the same sense of social insight and curious entertainment that The Game of Love continues to have for me today.

silence

Until next time …

 

 

One thought on “The Game of Love

fbpasshack.net:

Is is so something the play game.

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