19th-century Britain was dominated by historical revivals such as Neo-classicism and the Gothic Revival. These design movements were riddled with religious and social connotations. Instead, Owen Jones sought a modern style with none of this cultural baggage. Setting out to identify the common principles behind the best examples of historical ornament, he formulated a design language that was suitable for the modern world. He applied this equally to wallpapers, textiles, furniture, metalwork and interiors.