True baby dolls were not made until the 20th century. Prior to this most dolls were called baby dolls but actually represented children and adults.
Kammer & Reinhardt were one of the first manufacturers to make baby dolls. They called their baby dolls ‘Character Dolls’ and registered them as such in 1909. While Kammer & Reinhardt made the bodies, they bought the distinctive heads from another manufacturer called Simon & Halbig.
The baby doll pictured has a bisque head. The back of the head bears the mould number 100 and the marks of both manufacturers – a common practice in doll-making. The body of the doll is made from composition, a pulp usually consisting of wood or paper which is pressed into moulds and then dried. This process became popular with doll manufacturers as it was cheap and durable. The baby’s body would have been put together and then painted, with special attention given to the facial features.