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John Constable, 'A Barge on the Stour', about 1832, Museum no. 237-1888

'A Barge on the Stour' by John Constable, pencil, bistre ink and watercolour, about 1832. Museum no. 237-1888


This resource introduces teachers to the Victoria and Albert Museum's collection of works by John Constable, providing a unique opportunity to look at the artistic process from sketch through to finished work. The suggested activities are aimed at supporting teaching and learning in Art & Design at Key Stages 2, 3, 4 and 5. They focus on visual analysis through discussion and drawing in the galleries and Print Study Rooms. The gallery activities can be carried out sequentially, progressing from composition to tone and colour, or as stand-alone tasks. These include:

  • Constable's Drawings
  • Analysing Composition
  • Tone
  • Colour

Pre-prepared Resource Boxes are kept in the Print Study Rooms. They contain original, unglazed drawings and can be viewed by groups of 12 students at a time, with an accompanying teacher.

Read a biography of John Constable

'Weymouth Bay' by John Constable, 1816, Museum no. 330-1888

'Weymouth Bay' by John Constable, oil on millboard, 1816, Museum no. 330-1888

Constable in context

Below are listed some topics for discussion and investigation, either before or after your visit to the V&A, that will give a wider context for a study of Constable:

  • Landscape painting
  • The weather
  • The environment
  • Feelings in art
  • The artistic process
  • Constable's paintings as historical sources
  • Constable's widespread popularity (reproductions on biscuit tins etc)

'Study of Sky and Trees' by John Constable, 24 September 1821, Museum no. 167-1888

'Study of Sky and Trees' by John Constable, oil on canvas, 24 September 1821, Museum no. 167-1888

Activity: Constable's drawings

Today we value Constable's pencil, pen, watercolour and oil sketches for their freshness and vitality. However, at the time when he was working, the public expected a highly polished oil painting, executed in the studio not in the open air. Constable did not find the production of these finished paintings easy, which probably contributed to his late recognition by the art establishment.

The first stage of Constable's work was usually done outdoors, in a sketchbook. These sketchbooks were his storehouse of images, and he referred to the 1813 and 1814 sketchbooks of Suffolk scenes for the rest of his life. Often he made a sketch for its own sake, with no finished painting in mind.


At the V&A

Look at the Constable drawings in the Constable Resource Box in the Print Study Rooms (this must be pre-booked before you visit).

'Salisbury Cathedral' by John Constable, 1811, Museum no. 292-1888

'Salisbury Cathedral' by John Constable, black and white chalk on grey paper, 1811, Museum no. 292-1888

'Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Ground' by John Constable, oil on canvas, 1823, Museum no. FA.33

'Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Ground' by John Constable, oil on canvas, 1823, Museum no. FA.33

If you compare the chalk sketch of Salisbury Cathedral on the left to the final painting on the right, you can see that Constable removed the large tree to reveal more of the cathedral itself.

You can ask the Print Room staff to set out the drawings from the Resource Box in chronological order, so the students can see how they changed as Constable developed as an artist. It is particularly interesting to compare similar subjects in drawings of different periods. Ask students to focus on formal elements such as the use of line and tone, as well as the kind of atmosphere the drawing creates. Look also at the effects created by different drawing materials.

Your students can also look at high quality replicas of Constable's pocket sketchbooks owned by the V&A (the originals are unfortunately too fragile to be viewed). They are wonderful to handle and give students a sense of how Constable's sketchbooks were a kind of visual diary. You will find them in the Resource Box. The drawings and sketchbooks give a clear indication of Constable's main interests in terms of subject matter. Ask students what they found out about the artist from looking at them. What do they think he was most interested in? What did he draw only rarely, if at all?

Back at school

'Study of Clouds' by John Constable, 1822, Museum no. 590-1888

'Study of Clouds' by John Constable, oil on paper, 1822, Museum no. 590-1888

On the back the 'Study of Clouds' oil painting on the right, Constable wrote 'Sepr.5.1822. looking SE noon. Wind very brisk & effect bright and fresh. Clouds moving very fast. with occasional very bright openings to the blue.'

Your students could make their own visual 'weather diary', recording skyscapes at regular intervals and making notes of wind, rain, sunshine and temperature. Constable often did this on his sketches of clouds and skyscapes.

When you go to the gallery, show students the cloud study and oil sketches.




Activity: analysing composition

A concern of any landscape painter is composition. Constable did not simply record exactly what was in front of him. He rearranged it subtly to fit a predetermined pattern. He often had in mind an underlying geometric arrangement in which the picture plane was divided into sections - perhaps quarters or thirds - vertically and/or horizontally. He then might place significant elements on the central vertical line, for example the church in Dedham Lock and Mill.

'Dedham Lock and Mill' by John Constable, 1820, Museum no. FA.34

'Dedham Lock and Mill' by John Constable, oil on canvas, 1820, Museum no. FA.34

Compositional lines on 'Dedham Lock and Mill' by John Constable

Compositional lines on 'Dedham Lock and Mill' by John Constable

Constable was also fond of diagonals, especially in the lower part of a picture. In Dedham Lock and Mill, the boat on the left and the top of the post and base of the tree trunk on the right connect diagonally with the centre point on the horizon.

At the V&A

You could give your students photocopies of Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds, The Valley of the Stour, with Dedham in the Distance and the full-scale study for The Hay Wain. Ask them to look at the corresponding paintings in the Paintings galleries (Level 3, Rooms 81, 82, 87 and 88) and mark on the photocopies the main compositional lines with a black biro or pen. Show them the diagram on the right as an example - you can compare it to the painting in the gallery.

A pencil or ruler held out with a straight arm at some distance from the painting will help students to identify the main pictorial axes by revealing which elements are aligned. Students should start by drawing in the horizon line and then look for features placed on the vertical and horizontal half-way lines, and on diagonals.

You might also like to ask students to compare the composition of the sketch for Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds and the final oil painting executed 11 years later. You could also see how a reproduction of the finished version of The Hay Wain differs from the V&A's full-size oil sketch.

Back at school

Ask students to photocopy a photograph of a landscape from a magazine and re-compose it by cutting and pasting, following the diagrams they made at the V&A. If your school is in a rural area, you could suggest that students try taking landscape photographs with typical Constable compositions. The results in either medium could then be enlarged on a photocopier. Soft pastel applied over photocopies is a quick and effective way of producing finished works. The photocopy provides the composition and tone, leaving students free to concentrate on colour. Students could investigate the expressive possibilities of landscape through the shades they choose.

'Barges on the Stour with Dedham Church in the distance' by John Constable, about 1811, Museum no. 325-1888

'Barges on the Stour with Dedham Church in the distance' by John Constable, oil on paper laid on canvas, about 1811, Museum no. 325-1888

Activity: tonal studies

Constable had a lifelong obsession with light and dark. His work became darker and more dramatic as his career progressed. Some critics have seen this as evidence of a pervasive melancholy following his beloved wife Maria's early death in 1828.

In the late drawing View on the Stour: Dedham Church in the Distance, very dark tones predominate with few areas of white or intermediate tones. This bold oil sketch is one of the earliest to demonstrate the vibrancy and originality of Constable's mature style. The lock gates are probably near Flatford Mill. Constable was very familiar with the barges that carried grain on the River Stour.

In Constable's paintings tone helps create movement, leading the eye from one part of the picture to another and emphasising key elements. It frequently echoes the compositional lines. In the full-size study for 'The Hay Wain', the dark mass of trees to the left of centre leads the eye down to the figures standing at the water's edge. The Hay Wain cart itself is emphasised by the very light shirt of the driver. Bright tones in the top right and bottom left corners create balance and frame the diagonal flow of the river.

At the V&A

'View on the Stour: Dedham Church in the background' by John Constable, about 1836, Museum no. 249-1888

'View on the Stour: Dedham Church in the background' by John Constable, pencil wash, about 1836, Museum no. 249-1888

You could ask students to make drawings of Constable oil sketches and paintings in the Level 3 Paintings galleries, using black conté or wax crayon. If the students use the crayons on their side it will help them concentrate on tone rather than line. They should up tones over the whole surface, laying in all areas of the same tone at once and working from dark to light. Remind them that this is a specific exercise - they are making a sketch or study rather than a careful drawing. In this way they can block in tones in very rough shapes rather than worrying about details.

You could try the exercise at school before your visit. Alternatively, ask your students to make a tonal study of clouds from one of Constable's paintings. Discuss the relation between the different tones and the composition. Do very light or dark areas highlight particular elements? How are different tones distributed across the picture plane? You could extend the activity by asking students to write descriptions of paintings concentrating on their mood and atmosphere. Comparing two descriptions of the same painting can be fascinating.

Back at school

Students could use their sketches as the basis for collages, using black, white and grey sugar paper, or scraps of newspaper with varying tonal values.

'Study for the Haywain' by John Constable, about 1821, Museum no. 987-1888

'Study for the Haywain' by John Constable, oil on canvas, about 1821, Museum no. 987-1888

Activity: colour jigsaw

Constable's early work, such as 'The Valley of the Stour with Dedham in the Distance', is characterised by clear, fresh blues and greens. However, as the tone of his paintings and drawings became progressively darker, the colours also became darker and duller. By 1821, and the large-scale sketch for The Hay Wain, dark browns predominate.

In his open-air oil sketches, Constable applied colour in a variety of ways - rich impasto (thickly applied paint) and glazes (translucent oil paint), heavy dots of bright colour and light touches of pure white. Quick strokes with a brush bearing only a small amount of paint gave a dappled 'dry brush' effect, allowing the colours underneath to show through. Constable attempted the same fresh and rapid techniques when working on the final canvas back in his studio. He intended the varied paint surface to be examined close-up as well as viewed from a distance.

Close-up examination sometimes reveals small areas of the original background colour (the 'ground'). Constable favoured beige or mid-brown grounds. In The Valley of the Stour, with Dedham in the Distance, he left the reddish-brown ground uncovered in places such as the banks of the river. A coloured ground gives an overall warmer and darker effect than a white ground, which was not commonly used until later in the 19th century.

At the V&A

'The Valley of the Stour with Dedham in the distance' by John Constable, about 1800-8, Museum no. 321-1888

'The Valley of the Stour with Dedham in the distance' by John Constable, oil on paper laid on canvas, about 1800-8, Museum no. 321-1888

Before going to the museum, enlarge postcards of the V&A's Constable paintings on a photocopier. (Postcards are available from the museum shops). Cut the image into eight equal sections.

Give each student a section from one of the images and an A4 piece of paper. If possible, use mid-brown paper that will mimic the ground Constable used in oil paintings. Your students' task is to find the painting from which their section came and to draw an enlarged colour version of it, filling a whole sheet of paper. They might find it helpful to divide both the photocopied section and their drawing paper into quarters to help get the right proportions. Constable used this kind of 'squaring up' technique when making oil paintings from sketches. If your time at the V&A is limited, students could sketch out their section from the photocopy before the visit and concentrate on colour at the museum.

Try asking students to draw directly with oil pastels or wax crayons. These will give good, quick coverage of large areas and a suitable intensity of colour. Avoid coloured pencils, which tend to be too feeble on a coloured ground.

Back at school

Put the students' sections together to recreate the whole paintings. Some sections may need to be modified in order to link together correctly. Students might enjoy mounting the final work and making a mock gilt frame for it.

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